- Pharmaceutical water treatment
- Municipal water treatment
- Pools & Spas
- Aquaculture – Fish Farming & Hatcheries
- Aquariums & Zoos
- Agriculture – drinking water
- Cooling towers
- Air washers
- Commercial laundries
- Bottled water
- Wineries & Breweries
- Waste water treatment
- Soil & Groundwater remediation
1. Pharmaceutical Water Treatment
Ozone treatment of wastewater reduces the usage of energy, water, utilities and chemicals, and provides an effective alternative to traditional chemical treatments and older technologies. Pharmaceutical wastewater containing from 0.5% up to 10% formaldehyde or glutaraldehyde can be treated using ozone or ozone, peroxide, UV combinations. Up to 55% reductions in chemical oxygen demand (COD) levels are observed for solutions containing either formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde or a mixture of the two aldehydes when these solutions are treated using ozone or ozone/peroxide/UV combinations.
2. Municipal Water Treatment
Ozone is applied in large scale drinking water plants by means of porous diffusers placed strategically in large concrete contacting tanks. In smaller plants, ozone is usually applied via injectors. Control of ozone addition is by means of appropriate analytical instrumentation that measures ozone levels either in the liquid or gas phases – sometimes in both phases. Application and control of ozone to water is similar regardless of the specific use of the treated water.
UV optical ozone analysers are typically specified in this application for ambient monitoring. They are mounted near large capacity ozone generators to shut the generators down in case of a leak. Aeroqual believe the level of accuracy offered by UV technology is over specified and more expensive than necessary when used simply as a leak detector in Municipal Water Treatment Plants. Aeroqual have designed much lower cost ambient ozone monitors tailored to the needs of Municipal Water Plants.
Benefits of Aeroqual Ozone Monitors for Municipal Water Treatment
- Lower maintenance costs
- Multiple Aeroqual monitors can be purchased for the same budget as UV offering greater coverage, safety and opportunities for redundancy and spares
- No hassle of field calibration – simply change out factory pre-calibrated sensor heads annually
- No sending equipment away for calibration or expensive on site technician time
- No downtime – keep spare sensor heads on hand
- Calibration certificates traceable to international standards available with every sensor head
- Network capabilities
3. Pools & Spas
Ozone is an efficacious antimicrobial oxidizer that can be safely applied to public swimming venues. Its function in public recreational water is as a Secondary Disinfection System used in conjunction with chlorine. Water clarity and quality is improved in the pool after ozone’s potent and rapid oxidation (to which microorganisms cannot become immune). Ozone is effective at reducing chloramines in pool water that when left uncontrolled:
- will reduce the ability of the pool water to protect itself against human pathogens
- contribute to structural/equipment corrosion (primarily as a function of off-gas)
- potentially exacerbate “swimmer’s asthma”.
Ozone is a potent broad spectrum antimicrobial oxidizer that when properly sized and applied to any swimming venue will:
- Control the chloramine levels in the water as well as provide significantly more oxidation than FAC
- Provide a 3 log Cryptosporidium parvum inactivation in a side-stream applied single pass
- Provide micro-flocculation which aids filtration
- Allow residual FAC for continuous in-pool swimmer protection from pathogens
Aqueous Ozone as a Surface Sanitizing spray for locker rooms, shower, bathrooms and ancillary pool equipment is also possible.
An ambient monitor is required in the mechanical room in case of a generator leaks. Aeroqual ozone monitors can shut down the O3 generator with options to trigger an alarm and or display prior to entering the mechanical room. An additional alarm/display at the control room can be useful in the control room which may be some distance away.
4. Aquaculture – Fish Farming & Hatcheries
Ozone disinfection plays an important role in the prevention and elimination of fish diseases in commercial aquaculture systems as well as in the ultimate processing and packaging of seafood products.
- Eco-friendly water habitat
- Waste water treatment
- Surface sanitation
- Product processing and packaging
5. Aquariums & Zoos
Large municipal aquariums and zoos disinfect water with ozone to protect different species from infection and from water borne diseases. Ozone destroys bacteria, inactivates viruses, and oxidizes organics. The water is clean and clear and safe for the animals.
- No odour
- No harmful residue
- Effective microbe control
- Water clarity
6. Agriculture – Livestock Drinking Water, Greenhouses
Supplying clean drinking water to livestock by removing fertilizers, bacteria and pesticides from their water supply can improve weight gain and improve overall health and production. Increased health of livestock and crops lead to improved productivity, reduced costs and increased profits for producers. Studies by PFRA and other regulatory bodies indicate bacteria free and clean drinking water can increase weigh gains of farm animals by 20% or more. Eggs can have a bad odour if water is not clean. Chickens may stop laying or be less productive if their energy is spent fighting off infection. Supplying clean water to crops in green houses can improve yields and speed up growth rates.
The success of a hydroponics crop depends on the quality of the water being used to grow the plants. Water parameters that have a direct impact on crop success include:
- Oxygen level: low levels limit plant growth
- Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) concentration: High levels reduce fertilizer effectiveness and promotes growth of anaerobic bacteria
- Microbial loading: High levels of bacteria in the water compete with the plants for nutrients. Root born pathogens are detrimental to plant health
- Algae growth
Benefits of Ozone to Hydroponics
- The elimination of H2S
- The increase in oxygen levels
- The elimination of microbes, algae and root born pathogens including powdery mildew, Fusarium and Pythium
- Savings on chemical fertilisers
- Higher crop yields
8. Cooling Towers
Water treatment is the most important factor effecting the operation and longevity of cooling towers, air washers, compressors and other heat exchange equipment. Ozone water treatment equipment is modular, very reliable and in most cases more economical than a good chemical water treatment program. Ozone water treatment means no chemical discharge into sanitary sewer systems. The aim is to sterilise the water tank water to eliminate mould/scum which is potentially a health issue but mainly to save the cost and reduce environmental impact of cleaning with harsh chemicals.
The California EPA considers the use of ozone on cooling towers a “Pollution Prevention Technology” and is generally regarded as safe, (GRAS Approval). It has been proven by the Centers For Disease Control to kill Legionella bacteria faster and more completely for safer cooling tower operation.
This application requires an ambient ozone monitor either on the skid or on the wall next to the generator to shut the generator down in case of a leak. The generator is usually in the same room as the water tank/cooling tower.
9. Air Washers
Air washers are used in commercial buildings to humidify and dehumidify large volumes of air circulating throughout occupied areas. The same principle of air handling is used in mills and manufacturing plants to remove lint/fibers, dust and vapors from the building air. Air washers are also used to remove volatile organics from manufacturing processes through the exhaust fumes. Large air-handling washers can move in excess of 100,000 cubic feet of air per minute (cfm). An elaborate spray system inside of the air-handling room creates a wall of water in which all the air must pass through. As the name implies, air washers pick up organic and inorganic materials that eventually dissolve in the water. In almost all cases the spray water is re-circulated from a central tank. The reservoir must be treated with chemical biocides — both oxidizing and non-oxidizing — to maintain a healthy working environment, reduce biofilm formation and insure proper heat transfer in the cooling/heating equipment. Chlorine/bromine combinations are almost always avoided due to the odor they impart into the air stream. Ozone is an effective biocide and air washer sump cleaning schedules are often no longer required.
Benefits of Ozone for Cooling Towers & Air Washers
- Ozone is an oxidizing biocide approximately 3 times more powerful than chlorine but acts thousands of times faster.
- Ozone reverts back to oxygen in a very short time with only a small residual retained in the water.
- Ozone and tower water blowdown will provide the sole treatment with no additional chemicals added in most cases.
- Unlike non-oxidizing biocides bacteria cannot develop immunity to ozone. Alternating chemical treatment programs, (biocides) is not necessary.
- When properly dissolved and diluted ozone does not harm cooling system metals, pump or valve components. Cleaning the chiller tubes, (to remove biofouling) is eliminated, completely.
- No chemical residual in the blowdown means environmentally friendly operation with no environmental impact or discharge permit requirements. No chemical storage, handling, transportation, liabilities, secondary containment, MSDS records, eye wash stations or concerns for workers on site.
- Automated equipment can be tied into Building Management System for remote monitoring of ORP and water conductivity if required.
10. Commercial Laundries
Ozone is now being implemented in many commercial and institutional laundries. Not only because ozone is an environmentally-friendly alternative to chlorine, but because it makes economic sense. The advantages of a properly designed and operated ozone laundering system have been proven.
- Reduces environmental impact – reduced effluent waste water
- Improves laundry quality – whiter, fluffier laundry, extended linen life, better deodorisation
- Saves money
- Saves energy and detergent, while providing superior disinfection.
- By using mostly cold water, business operational costs can be reduced up to 50%.
- Typically < 2-year payback time
- Shorter cycle times
Ozone generators can be added on to conventional laundries, so no major changes to existing installations are necessary.
Ambient ozone monitors should be installed near the ozone generator (on a skid or wall mounted) to shut the generator down in case of a leak and also in the laundry area where people are working.
11. Bottled Water
Ozone was introduced into the beverage industry as a residual disinfectant for bottled water. Its efficacy as a sanitizer prompted the International Bottled Water Association (IBWA) to require ozone in certain types of bottled water. The use of ozone has now spread throughout much of the beverage industry where it is used in plants that bottle everything from beer and wine to soft drinks and juices.
- Potable water preparation – disinfect the bottled water from bacteria and viruses, precipitating heavy metals, removing colour, tannin and hydrogen sulfide
- Surface sanitation – disinfect bottling equipment
- Container rinsing – disinfect bottles and caps
- Water preservation
An ambient ozone monitor is recommended in the generator room to shut down the generator in case of leaks and also in the production areas where people work in case of off-gassing from the water.
12. Wineries & Breweries
Vintners and breweries today want to preserve the natural flavours of their products. They are quickly eliminating chlorinated water and other toxic sanitizers and turning to ozone as a safe, cost effective, and proven sanitizer in their wine and beer making process.
Benefits of Ozone for Wineries & Breweries
- Safe For Operators – vented ozone destruct
- Better Sanitation – complete disinfection on contact with no chemical residue
- Saves Money – reduces or eliminates chemical use and reduces hot water use
- Saves Time – disinfectant produced on-site (no storage, mixing or handling of chemicals)
- Process water purification
- Sustainability – ozone sanitation is the only natural product with proven efficiency without leaving any harmful by-products
- Mold & Mildew Control
- Eliminates T.E.A. precursors
13. Wastewater Treatment
Ozone waste water treatment is a thorough and effective oxidation process and is a suitable disinfectant for the organic matter found in waste water. The process will remove pesticides, organics (such as organic Nitrogen), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA), and Sulfur. Plus, it will significantly decrease the associated odors. Finally, the benefits for using ozone in waste water treatment include use of a clean, environmentally friendly technology that is as effective and economical.
Benefits of Ozone for Wastewater Treatment
- Safe and easy to use
- Low maintenance costs
- Ozone is produced on-site and requires no storage of dangerous chemicals
- Ozone requires no additional chemicals
- No cocktail of disinfectants necessary. Micro-organisms cannot build resistance to ozone even after prolonged usage
- Very effective in removing biofilms
- No persistent chemicals. Ozone breaks down to oxygen
- Does not continue oxidizing to the detriment of the fixture. Additionally, most Ozone will be consumed in interactions with the off-gassing from the sewage
- Ozone will oxidize a surface and form a patina which limits further oxidation
- Ozone is effective in a wide pH range
Wastewaters can contain high levels of organic contaminants and pharmaceuticals. Organic contaminants are usually easily biodegradable and as such are amenable to biological wastewater treatment. However, this type of treatment requires rather large land areas and time (~ 30 days or more) for completion. Biological treatment is the least costly method of wastewater treatment, requiring the least amount of added energy. When land is not available, or there is insufficient time for bioprocessing, ozone can provide a technology to reduce BOD and COD levels. Ozone has been shown to aid sludge dewatering, thus aiding filtration. Biotreated effluents can be disinfected with ozone, thus avoiding disinfection with chlorine, and also avoiding the formation of chlorinated organics that pass into the environment and enter the food chain.
14. Soil & Groundwater Remediation
Typical Ozone applications include:
- Residential & commercial gas and oil spill remediation
- Gas station, refinery or oil well remediation
- Shoreline & brown-field remediation
- Salt & hazardous chemical spill contamination remediation
- Train & tractor trailer spill remediation
- Groundwater remediation
Systems are typically built into 20’ steel cargo containers for stationary installation or a trailer for mobility, or can be provided as component assemblies to install in a job site building. An ambient monitor should be installed in the container/trailer to shut the O3 generators down in case of leaks.
Ozonated water from the trailers is carried by pipes or hoses and sparged into the soil via probes or wells. There are environmental, economic and time saving benefits. These include rapid treatment response, minimising the environmental impact of a spill. Each remediation site is different depending on the location, characteristics, contamination type, distribution and concentration.
Ozone will rid contaminated soil of a variety of pollutants such as:
- MTBE (Methyl-Tertiary-Butyl-Ether)
- VOCs (Volatile Organic Carbons)
- Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylene
Benefits of Ozone Soil Remediation
- Treatment is done on site
- Treatment causes minimal physical disturbance to the site
- Low capital cost
- Low operating costs
- Fast reaction rates